Hydrating Ingredients in Skin Care Products
It’s getting cold out and like I said ‘Tis the Season for Chemical Peels! Both of these things necessitate hydrating products for your skin. Here’s a list of ingredients your cosmeceutical/pharmaceutical skin care products should have in them!
Alpha Lipoic Acid – a powerful antioxidant that destroys free-radicals before they can destroy cells. Alpha Lipoic Acid also enhances the potency of Vitamin C and E. It occurs naturally in green, leafy vegetables.
Lactic Acid – A multi-purpose ingredient used as a preservative, exfoliant, and moisturizer, and to provide acidity to a formulation. In the body, lactic acid is found in the blood and muscle tissue as a product of the metabolism of glucose and glycogen. It is also a component of the skin’s natural moisturizing factor. Lactic acid is an alpha hydroxy acid occurring in sour milk and other lesser known sources such as beer, pickles , and other foods made through a process of bacterial fermentation. Lactic acid has better water intake than glycerin. Studies indicate an ability to increase the water-holding capacity of the corneum layer is closely related to the absorption of lactic acid; that is, the greater the amount of absorbed lactic acid the more pliable the corneum layer. However, other research has shown that lactic acid can indeed inhibit melanin production separate from its action as an exfoliant on skin.
Superoxide Dismutase – Used in cosmetic preparations to prevent drying and aging of the skin without causing irritation.
Ubiquinone (Idebenone) – Potent antioxidant with effective anti-aging & anti-wrinkle properties, reinforces collagen & elastin production of connective tissue, potent moisturizer (liposomes penetrate into skin preventing water-loss).
Vitamin C – A well-known anti-oxidant. Synthetic analogues such as magnesium ascorbic phosphate are among those considered more effective as they tend to be more stable. When evaluating its ability to fight free-radical damage in light of its synergistic effect with vitamin E, vitamin C shines. As vitamin E reacts with a free radical, it, in turn, is damaged by the free radical it is fighting. Vitamin C comes in to repair the free radical damage to vitamin E, allowing E to continue with its free radical scavenging duties. Past research has indicated that high concentrations of topically applied vitamin C are photo protective, and apparently the vitamin preparation used in these studies resisted soap and water, washing, or rubbing for three days. More current research has indicated that vitamin C does add protection against UVB damage when combined with UVB sunscreens. This would lead one to conclude that in combinations with conventional sunscreen chemicals, vitamin C may allow for longer-lasting, broader sun protection. Again, the synergism between vitamins C and E can yield even better results, as apparently a combination of both provided very good protection from UVB damage. However, vitamin C appears to be significantly better than E at protecting against UVA damage. A further conclusion to draw is that the combination of vitamins C, E, and sunscreen offers greater protection than the sum of the protection offered by any of the three ingredients acting alone. Vitamin C also acts as a collagen biosynthesis regulator. It is known to control intercellular colloidal substances such as collagen, and when formulated into the proper vehicles, can have a skin-lightening effect. It is said to be able to help the body to fortify against infectious conditions by strengthening the immune system.
Vitamin E – Considered the most important oil-soluble antioxidant and free radical scavengers. Studies indicate that vitamin E performs these functions when applied topically. It is also a photo-protectant, and it helps to protect the cellular membrane from free radical damage. In addition, vitamin E serves a preservative function due to its ability to protect against oxidation. This benefits not only the skin, but also the product in terms of longevity. As a moisturizer, vitamin E is well-absorbed through the skin, demonstrating a strong affinity with small blood vessels. It is also considered to improve the skin’s water-binding ability. In addition, vitamin E emulsions have been found to reduce trans-epidermal water loss, thereby improving the appearance of rough, dry, and damaged skin. This vitamin is also believed to help maintain the connective tissue. There is also evidence that vitamin E is effective in preventing irritation due to sun exposure. Many studies show that vitamin E topically applied prior to UV irradiation is protective against epidermal cell damage caused by inflammation. This indicates possible anti-inflammatory properties. Lipid per oxidation in tissues may be on cause of skin aging. Vitamin E, however, appears to counteract decreased functioning of the sebaceous glands and reduces excessive skin pigmentation with is found to increase linearly with age.
Vitis Vinifera – Grape Seed Extract –Anti-Oxidant – Moisturizing, nourishing properties due to high levels of linoleic acid.